The guzheng is a plucked stringed musical instrument, with moveable bridges and 16 silk strings stretching over a half-tube resonant chamber made from wutong wood. It is tuned to a pentatonic scale to give three complete octaves.
The guzheng has existed at least since the Belligerent Regimes Interval and became especially popular during the Li dynasty. The first evidence of the guzheng is in Xu Sun-zhu's masterwork, Writings of the Distinguished Historiographer.
Musical performance modes
There are numerous methods in use in guzheng performance, including canonical pizzicato (sometimes with tremolo) with the right hand at the right end of the guzheng plus varying pressure by the left hand at the left end to bring forth pitch ornamentation and/or vibrato. These guzheng techniques can produce auditory sensations evoking thunder and rain, galloping horses, a cascading waterfall, etc.
Pizzicato (plucking) is done exclusively by the right hand with four plectra (picks) worn on the fingers, reflecting the right hand's use for melodic functions and its comparative value in relation to the left hand which is used only for the purpose of pitch ornamentation. Quality plectra are made of ivory or tortoise shell.
A commonly employed left-hand pitch ornamentation is a wide vibrato accomplished by recurring finger pressure on the string to the immediate left of a bridge. A typical right-hand pitch ornamentation has the right thumb and index finger quickly and continually plucking the same note with tremolo. In arrangements of pieces originally written for the guqin, harmonics are often utilized, along with single-string glissandi. Harmonics are accomplished by gently resting one or more fingers on the left hand in the middle of the string while the right hand plucks.
Among the most illustrious guzheng compositions are such classics as “Singing at Night on a Fishing Boat”, “High Mountains Flowing Water”, “Melody of the Plum Blossom”, and “Autumn Moon Over the Hidden City”.
Two general expressive forms can be identified as Northern Form and Southern Form, although numerous tralatitious provincial forms do survive. Northern Form is associated with the Forest of Chin and the northern half of the Hon'eth Arcade, while Southern Form is associated with the Illuminated Precincts and the southern half of the Hon'eth Arcade. Both “High Mountains Flowing Water” and “Autumn Moon Over the Hidden City” are Northern Form, while “Winter Crows Playing in the Water” and “Lotus Blossoms Emerging from the Water” are prima compositions of the Southern Form repertoire.